22 Oct 2012

Water Well Anatomy

Well Drilling, Well Maintenance Comments Off on Water Well Anatomy

Have you ever wondered how wells work?


Back in the day, a well was just a hole in the ground where people tried to get water. In theory, that’s exactly what wells are today; however, there is much more to a well than just being a hole.

So what does a modern water well look like?

Let’s start from the bottom up:


Casing and Screen:

When drilling a well, a driller tries to find gravel beds. Gravel beds allow water to flow freely forming aquifers. When an aquifer is found and tested for quality and production, a stainless steel screen is attached to the well casing and lowered to the bottom of the well. The steel casing allows water to flow from the aquifer to the inside of the well casing.

Once the screen is in place, sand is added around the screen and pressure grout around the casing, for added protection and better water flow. This step is often skipped by other well drilling companies, but we have found that this is necessary in order to give you the best quality water well.


Pump and Pipe:

Submersible water pumps come in different shapes and sizes. At C&J, we use stainless steel pumps that allow for better performance and longer life of the pump. The pumps are able to push the water through the attached black polyethylene pipe into what is called a pitless adapter. A pitless adapter connects the pipe in your well to the pipe in the ground and allows for water to flow into your house.


Well Head:

This is the most familiar part of a well system. The well head is a short piece of casing that sticks out of the ground. By law, well heads should be at least two feet above the flood plain. At the top of the well head is a well cap that protects the well from foreign objects falling into it. Right next to (or in most cases attached to) the well head, is a thiner piece of PVC pipe. This PVC pipe works as a guard for your pump wires. The wires are attached and give power to the submersible pump.


There is much skill that is needed to be able to both find a good location for a water well and drill it. It’s also very important that the well drilling contractor uses the best products and materials available. If not, you will be left with an underperforming well. At C&J, we have years of experience and are known for producing the best quality water wells in Central Indiana (check out our reviews HERE). We are able to stamp each of our wells with a 10 year warranty, because we only use the best materials.


If you are looking for a well contractor with a good reputation and a long history of satisfied customers, C&J is the well professional for you!